State of the Art of the ScienceP&G Research
- Objective Measurement Of Shaving Effects Upon Skin -- A presentation showing how P&G measures irritation.
- Hydration And Skin Condition In Context Of Shaving -- A P&G presentation discussing the challenges and techniques in measuring skin condition.
- Stereoimaging Of Trapped Hairs -- A P&G presentation showing 3D imaging techniques to learn about trapped hairs and skin exfoliation.
- Scientists Cross New Threshold In Shaving -- An issue of P&G's science newsletter "Breakthroughs" that focuses on recent innovations that help them study shaving.
Is Cosmetic Science Really "Bad?
A self-examination of the cosmetics industry. It's a set of responses to "Bad Science" which is a general indictment of industrial science.
- Part I: Is Cosmetic Science Really "Bad?"
- Part II: Detecting Baloney Science
- Part III: Evidence to Support Claims in the Real World
- Part IV: How Scientific is Cosmetic Science?
- Part V: Who do you think you are fooling?
- Does Cosmetic Science Rate highly as a Science? A summary and response to the 'Is Cosmetic Science Really "Bad?"' articles.
- Factors Involved in Satisfactory Shaving; L. Hollander & E. J. Casselman; Journal of the American Medical Association, 109:95 (July 10) 1937. The first published scientific paper which integrates the various aspect of shaving. B&B Thread
- Observations on the Cutting of Beard Hair Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 1976; B&B Thread
- Insights Into Shaving and Its Impact On Skin K. Cowley and K. Vanoosthuyze; Gillette Reading Innovation Centre; British J. of Dermatology; 4 MAR 2012; DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2011.10783.x. B&B Thread
- When Razor Meets Skin: A Scientific Approach To Shaving (Dermascope, May 2008) -- edited version
- Shaving I. Study of Skin and Shavings; Chetty Bhaktaviziam, Md; Herbert Mescon, Md; Alexander G. Matoltsy, Md; Archives of Dermatology; December 1963; Vol. 88, No. 6:874-879. doi:10.1001/archderm.1963.01590240198033 -- Microscope pictures and discussion of hair & skin removed during shaving
- Evaluating Shaver Sharpness by Measuring the Pulling Force on Artificial Hair
- On the Optimum Hand Speed for Two-Blade Razor Shaving. Teaching Mathematics and its Applications, 1991 Vol. 10 No. 3 -- B&B thread
- Magnablade Razor Analysis discusses the effects of a magnetic field on blade corrosion, among other things.
- Comparison of Shaving Lubricants Discusses a method for testing shaving cream based on viscosity vs shear.
- Comparative analysis of razor blade coatings
- Comparative Study of Beard and Scalp Hair Eva Tolgyesi, D. W. Coble, F. S. Fang, E. O. Kairinen; Gillette Research Institute; J Society Cosmetic Science, 1983 -- B&B thread
- Cutting characteristics of beard hair Journal of Materials Science, vol. 42, issue 20, pp. 8725-8737
- Structural characteristics and mechanical behaviour of beard hair Journal of Materials Science, Volume 41, Number 4, 1109-1121, DOI: 10.1007/s10853-005-3648-2
- Influence of Surface Roughness, Material and Climate Conditions on the Friction of Human Skin Tribology Letters, Volume 37, Number 2, 361-373, DOI: 10.1007/s11249-009-9530-7
- Fabrication, Characterisation and Tribological Investigation of Artificial Skin Surface Lipid Films
B&B ThreadsGeneral Shaving Science
- A Short Survey of Scientific Literature on Shaving
- Science behind # of blades more of a discussion about what is and isn't legitimate science.
- Photo Analysis of Razor Designs shows blade exposure and cutting angles for a variety of razors.
- Blade dimensions and observations list the blade widths and bevels for a bunch of blades.
- Blade Differences/Similarities (long) some more blade dimensions and discussion.
- What is the Difference in Steels -- carbon vs stainless vs Damascus
- Temperature at which facial hair softens
- Old book: lather to stiffen hairs instead of soften? (re: Shaving Made Easy) and another thread on the same subject
- Water Penetration in Keratin: Revisiting the Scientific Data on Shaving
Chemistry of Soaps, Creams, Pre- and Post-Shaves
- Chewing the fat (Tallowate vs Stearate)
- Fatty acids & lather stability
- pH of soaps and creams a list of the pH for a dozen soaps & creams.
- Keep it Simple and Smooth - The Chemistry, Physics, and Science Behind Shaving -- An interesting, if controversial, discussion of the chemistry behind preshave treatments.
Shaving Technique & Issues
Modern Mechanix Articles
- Exploring the Science of Shaving
- 5 Bladed Razor Cuts Shaving Time
- Delusions About Shaving
- Handle Opens One Piece Razor
- Bag Inside a Can How cans of Edge shaving gel work
- Wonder Photos Reveal Unsuspected Facts About Razor Blades and Shaving
- Razor Blade Giants Battle for Supremacy
- Safety Razor
- Beard Clinic Maps Strategy for Shaving
Perceptions about Shaving
- Perceptual Evaluation of Shaving Closeness
- The Perception Of Surface Roughness By Active And Passive Touch
- The Influence of Surface Commensurability on Roughness Perception with the Bare Finger
- The Effect of Skin Temperature on the Perception of Roughness. This experiment examined the effect of skin temperature on the perception of roughness. The results show that apparent roughness declines as skin temperature falls below normal (32C), and that apparent roughness tends to be enhanced as skin temperature rises above normal, although the effect of warming is smaller and less predictable than the effect of cooling. (Barry G Green, Susan J Lederman, Joseph C Stevens; Sensory Processes 3, 327-333; 1979)
- The Smoothness of Shaven Beards: The relation between stubble length distribution and skin parameters and tactile smoothness -- B&B thread
- Friction and Deformation Behaviour of Human Skin: a presentation from Phillips Research (n/a because the website has been redesigned)
- Comparatively Speaking: Epilation vs. Depilation
- Perception and Buying Behaviour of Modern Consumers Towards Personal Care Product a student report
Lather & FoamEver notice that's it's hard to start the blade moving, but it slides easily once you get it going? That's because the shear friction of a foam is much lower than its static friction. The faster you shave, the less friction you get.
How does temperature affect lather? How do different soap additives affect lather, e.g. by changing the surface tension or water? What makes lather stable, and why does it break down? Does the size of air bubbles make a difference? Find out all you ever wanted to know and then some...
Badger & Blade threads
- The Physics of Foam
- The Foam Book
- Foam rheology
- Hydrodynamics of Wet Foams
- Rheology Essentials of Cosmetic and Food Emulsions (also at scribd)
- Scaling behavior in shaving cream
- Viscous and Elastic Fingering Instabilities in Foam
- Comparatively Speaking: Newtonian vs. Non-newtonian Liquids
- Non-Newtonian flow in the process industries: fundamentals and engineering
- Non-Newtonian Flows
- Shear-Induced Melting of an Aqueous Foam
- Two-dimensional flows of foam: drag exerted on circular obstacles and dissipation
Keratins: Skin & HairHair & skin are made of the same basic stuff, but with different structures. Obviously, their function in shaving is very different. We want to cut the hair, but glide over the skin without damaging it.
Hair & Skin
- Aspects of modelling Skin and Hair During Shaving -- Develops a computer model to analyze shaving.
- Adsorption to Skin and Hair -- Adsorption or adherence to a surface is the initial step in the interaction of any agent with a biological surface. Effects of concentration, pH, particle size, partition coefficients between vehicles and skin surface, hydration of the skin, and molecular configuration of adsorbate are discussed.
- The Structure of Hair (presentation)
- Chemical and physical behavior of human hair (also at scribd) -- online book
- Wetting Behavior And Surface Potential Characteristics Of Human Hair -- Masters thesis: New and existing measurement techniques have been applied to the science of hair care, and a number of new findings have resulted.
- The Secrets of Human Hair. Chemistry of hair products and how they interact with hair.
- Mechanical Behaviour of Human Skin in Vivo A Literature Review
- Mechanical behaviour of human epidermal and dermal layers in vivo
- Human skin in vivo: Overview of mechanical experiments and imaging techniques
- Tribometrology of Skin. Discussed skin friction and how to measured and quantify the properties of skin. (Norm Gitis, Raja Sivamani; Tribology Transactions, Vol. 47, No. 4, October-Decembner 2004, pp. 461-469)
- Skin friction coefficient changes induced by skin hydration and emollient application and correlation with perceived skin feel, (J Soc Cosmet Chem, 32, 55-65, March/April 1981)
- Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles -- This study investigated how epidermal hydration affects the friction between skin and textiles. In each individual, a highly positive linear correlation was found between skin moisture and friction coefficient. No correlation was observed between moisture and elasticity, as well as between elasticity and friction.
- Nutricosmetics: Feeding the Skin
- An artificial skin for shaving applications
- Introduction to how corrosion-resistant (stainless) steel works, and how it can rust anyway: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nWsmEMP8IFg
Sharpening & Cutting
- Note of the Radius of Curvature of a Cutting Edge; A. Mallock; Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 60:164167, January 1, 1896. The original paper that measured cutting edges and their impact on cutting (facial) hair.
- Experiments on Knife Sharpening - John Verhoeven
- The Science and Engineering of Cutting also at google
- On the sharpness of straight edge blades in cutting soft solids: Part I indentation experiments
- On the sharpness of straight edge blades in cutting soft solids: Part II Analysis of blade geometry
- Solving Everyday Problems With the Scientifc Method
- Low Cost Equipment for Science and Technology Education
- Analysis of Cosmetic Products also at google
- Introduction to Colloid and Surface Chemistry
- Review Paper: Continuum biomechanics of soft biological tissues
- Comparatively Speaking--Analytical Methods: The mg KOH/gm System
Original Experiments by B&B Members
- Shaving Analytics measurements of water and soap used with different shaving routines, and water retention of various brushes.
Microscope Pictures by B&B Members
- Straight razors sharpened on different hones.
- Clear pictures of the DE blade edges.
- DE blades, straight razors, and hair close up.
- 6 DE blades side by side.
- Merkur, Feather, Derby, & Other blades up close.
- Razor blades (mostly DE) really close up under the microscope.
- Hair on the face. Another thread.
- Hair under the microscope. Also shows how the cuticles loosen when soaked in shaving soap.
Hair Evaluation: Techniques & Procedures
- Microscopic Hair Shaft Evaluation: Lab procedure manual
- Hair analysis: teacher instuctions for lab
- Comparison of Mammalian Hair: Lab activity
- Hair morphology
- Microscopy of Hair Part 1: A Practical Guide and Manual for Human Hairs Part 1 Part 2
- Microscopy of Hair (a different version by the same author) Part 1 Part 2
- Hairs, Fibers, Crime, and Evidence Part 1: Hair Evidence; Forensic Science Communications; July 2000
- A Microscopical Study of Exotic Animal Hair Part 1 Part 2
Ideas for Further Experimentation
- Look at brush hairs under the microscope. Examine the hair & cut edges. Compare and contrast badger, boar, synthetic, and human hair.
- Compare the cut edge of beard hairs cut with different blades (straight, DE, injector. SE)
- Examine old blades to see if there's any damage/rust. Compare them to modern blades. Are the older blades coated? Can you see differences in the metal, or between the edges and coatings?
- Compare corked blades to new uncorked blades.
- Colorful Lather Printing
- Observations on the effect of posture on the distribution of tissue fluid in the face
- The Razors and Blades Myth -- Did Gillette make money on the razors or the blades?
Sources For Further ResearchPeer-Reviewed Journals
- Cochrane Reviews
- American Academy of Dermatology
Probably Also Peer-Reviewed
- The Fragrance Journal
- Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists in Japan
- New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists publishes Cosmetiscope
- American Chemical Society
- Society of Cosmetic Chemists
- International Journal of Cosmetic Science (IJCS)
- The Journal of Cosmetic Science (JCS)
- Cosmetics & Toiletries Magazine Research Articles and Online Research Directory
- The International Federation of Societies of Cosmetic Chemists publishes KOSMET a bibliographic database covering cosmetic and perfumery science and technology. Kosmet index
Company and Industry Group Journals
Marketing & Company Research
- 2010 Gillette Marketing Report _ Final
- 2007 Gillette India Ltd MAK-II Project Marketing Report
- 2007 Gillette India Ltd MAK-II Project Executive Summary
- Market Analysis of Gillette India PPT
- 2007 Gillette Series Case Study
- Gillete HiTech Edge PPT
- Gillette Vertical Final 1 - Copy
- Gillette: Marketing Case Study 2009
- Gillette Indonesia
- new-product-development-at-gillette teeuwsen 2004
- Gillete Mach 3 Prjct
- Strategic Management Presentation on Procter & Gamble's Acquisition of Gillette Company PPT
- Gillette: The Razor Wars continue PPT
- Revlon for Men: Consumer Behavior
- Procter & Gamble
- Procter & Gamble 2010
- Procter & Gamble 2009 Sustainability Report
- colloid: a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance
- emollient: something that softens, usualy a single ingredient. A specific example of a coloid.
- emulsion: mixture of two or more immiscible (unblendable) liquids
- occlude: (1) To cause to become closed; obstruct; (2) Chemistry To absorb or adsorb and retain (a substance).
- pogon: (Greek) a beard
- pogonotomy: the word for trimming one's beard, or shaving,
- pogonotrophy: beard feeding
- rheology: the science of the deformation and flow of matter
- thixotropy is the property of certain gels or fluids that are thick (viscous) under normal conditions, but flow (become thin, less viscous) over time when shaken, agitated, or otherwise stressed. In more technical language: some non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluids show a time-dependent change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shear stress, the lower its viscosity
- tomia: (Greek) cutting
- tribology: the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It includes the study and application of the principles of friction, lubrication and wear.
- tribometrology: the technology of measuring tribologogical things
- trophe: (Greek) nourishment