Science Of Shaving

State of the Art of the Science

P&G Research

Is Cosmetic Science Really "Bad?
A self-examination of the cosmetics industry. It's a set of responses to "Bad Science" which is a general indictment of industrial science.

Scientific papers

Major Works

Minor Works


B&B Threads

General Shaving Science

Razor Design


Chemistry of Soaps, Creams, Pre- and Post-Shaves

Shaving Technique & Issues

Perceptions about Shaving

Related Sciences

Lather & Foam

Ever notice that's it's hard to start the blade moving, but it slides easily once you get it going? That's because the shear friction of a foam is much lower than its static friction. The faster you shave, the less friction you get.

How does temperature affect lather? How do different soap additives affect lather, e.g. by changing the surface tension or water? What makes lather stable, and why does it break down? Does the size of air bubbles make a difference? Find out all you ever wanted to know and then some...

Badger & Blade threads



Keratins: Skin & Hair

Hair & skin are made of the same basic stuff, but with different structures. Obviously, their function in shaving is very different. We want to cut the hair, but glide over the skin without damaging it.

Hair & Skin
  • Aspects of modelling Skin and Hair During Shaving -- Develops a computer model to analyze shaving.
  • Adsorption to Skin and Hair -- Adsorption or adherence to a surface is the initial step in the interaction of any agent with a biological surface. Effects of concentration, pH, particle size, partition coefficients between vehicles and skin surface, hydration of the skin, and molecular configuration of adsorbate are discussed.




Sharpening & Cutting



Original Experiments by B&B Members
  • Shaving Analytics measurements of water and soap used with different shaving routines, and water retention of various brushes.

Microscope Pictures by B&B Members

Hair Evaluation: Techniques & Procedures

Ideas for Further Experimentation
  • Look at brush hairs under the microscope. Examine the hair & cut edges. Compare and contrast badger, boar, synthetic, and human hair.
  • Compare the cut edge of beard hairs cut with different blades (straight, DE, injector. SE)
  • Examine old blades to see if there's any damage/rust. Compare them to modern blades. Are the older blades coated? Can you see differences in the metal, or between the edges and coatings?
  • Compare corked blades to new uncorked blades.

Sources For Further Research

Peer-Reviewed Journals

Probably Also Peer-Reviewed

Other Journals

Company and Industry Group Journals


  • colloid: a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance
  • emollient: something that softens, usualy a single ingredient. A specific example of a coloid.
  • emulsion: mixture of two or more immiscible (unblendable) liquids
  • occlude: (1) To cause to become closed; obstruct; (2) Chemistry To absorb or adsorb and retain (a substance).
  • pogon: (Greek) a beard
  • pogonotomy: the word for trimming one's beard, or shaving,
  • pogonotrophy: beard feeding
  • rheology: the science of the deformation and flow of matter
  • thixotropy is the property of certain gels or fluids that are thick (viscous) under normal conditions, but flow (become thin, less viscous) over time when shaken, agitated, or otherwise stressed. In more technical language: some non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluids show a time-dependent change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shear stress, the lower its viscosity
  • tomia: (Greek) cutting
  • tribology: the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It includes the study and application of the principles of friction, lubrication and wear.
  • tribometrology: the technology of measuring tribologogical things
  • trophe: (Greek) nourishment