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It was a nitrocellulose lacquer (tined for gold, transparent for silver) quite similar to todays guitar lacquer. But it won’t last at all. And lacquering silver eliminates its antimicrobal properties, so its a bit senseless, imho.
Make sure the solution used in the ultrasonic won't harm anodised aluminum and it will be ok.
If you want to clean the outside of the razor, some dishwashing liquid, water and a toothbrush should be enough.
Hard to say, most likely a Gillette clone.
Case could be a late Gillette pocket case, blade box is a "fake", the razors head could be an early (wide shoulder) Tuckaway/Milady, but the stamps doesn't look like Gillette ones, the handle is based on the Tuckaway handle, but is longer.
Hello, the case belongs to a Single ring, the lining of the sides are later replacements, original was silk, like the top panel.
New improveds are not aggressive, imho, more direct than later Gillettes but still mild and efficient.
I'd say the center rod or insert is worn out. The inside of the TTO knob is threaded, another threaded insert fits into it. The center rod sits in the insert and moves when the knob is turned. So it can't/shouldn't move around infinitely.
Some pics of a Slim, the mechanism is the same...